CRB - Criminal Record Bureau, checks for criminal convictions.
NAGM - National Annual General Meeting
NEC - National Executive Committee
UA - Urostomy Association
UAGBI - Urostomy Association of Great Britain & Ireland
Bladder Cancer - bladder cancer is a malignant growth caused by cell changes in the lining or wall of the bladder. If it affects only the lining of the bladder it is known as superficial cancer. If it has spread into the muscle wall it is called invasive cancer.
Bladder reconstruction - the bladder may be partly or totally reconstructed using a portion of bowel.
Catheter - a fine tube. This is used to drain the bladder or a continent urinary pouch.
'Clam'-enterocystoplasty - none of the bladder is removed. The bladder is split side to side like a clam shell. A portion of bowel is then opened and sutured to the split sides. This will improve bladder capacity but also reduce activity in an overactive bladder.
Colonic conduit - another term for a urostomy. Colon (large bowel) is used to form the conduit (channel).
Continent Urinary Diversion - no external appliance is necessary. A continent diversion is formed to reconstruct or replace the damaged or diseased bladder. A portion of large or small bowel is used to make an internal reservoir (pouch). There are several types of continent urinary diversions, ‘clam’ enterocystoplasty, mitrofanoff, substitution cystoplasty, neo/orthotopic bladder, and rectal bladder.
Cystectomy - surgical removal of the urinary bladder. Partial cystectomy is when only a part of the bladder is removed. Radical cystectomy is when the entire bladder is removed. This is usually if cancer is present. In men the bladder and prostate are removed. In women, the bladder, womb, ovaries and fallopian tubes are also removed.
Detrusor Instability - is a term used to describe uncontrolled contractions of the detrusor muscle. This causes urgency and sometimes urinary incontinence. Urine frequency is also is also a problem both day and night.
Ileal Conduit - another term for a urostomy. Ileum (small bowel) is used to form the conduit (channel)
Interstitial Cystitis - is a chronic inflammation of the bladder. It is not believed to be caused by a bacteria therefore does not respond to antibiotics.
Males and females may be affected but it is more common in women. Symptoms may include severe urinary frequency, urgency and abdominal, urethral or vaginal pain.
Intestine - small or large bowel
Mitrofanoff - this surgery is undertaken if the normal urethra can not be used to drain urine from the bladder. A urinary pouch is created, or the native bladder is used. A channel is fashioned using the appendix or a portion of bowel or even ureter. One end is connected to the pouch or bladder and the other end is brought out onto the abdominal wall to form a small stoma (opening). A catheter may then be passed along this channel into the pouch or bladder to drain urine. A special valve in the channel prevents urine leaking out of the stoma therefore an external appliance is not necessary.
Neo-Bladder - if the bladder has to be removed, a new bladder may be reconstructed using bowel segments. Sometimes this operation is also known as Orthotopic Bladder Replacement as the new bladder is positioned in the same place as where the original one was removed. The new bladder is connected onto the urethra (water pipe) and urine is then passed naturally. Some people may have to use a catheter (fine tube) to empty the bladder completely.
Nephrostomy - if there is an obstruction in the lower urinary tract this procedure may be necessary. A fine tube is inserted through the skin into one or both kidneys to allow urine to drain safely and quickly. The tube (s) is attached to a drainage bag. A radiologist performs this procedure using x-rays and scanning equipment.
Rectal Bladder - in this type of urinary diversion the rectum (lower part of the back passage) is made into a pouch. The ureters (tubes from the kidneys) are then connected to the pouch. Urine then collects in the pouch and both urine and faeces are passed through the back passage.
Substitution cystoplasty - if the bladder is damaged or diseased it may be removed but preserving the bladder neck. A new bladder is fashioned from bowel and this is then connected to the bladder neck.
Suprapubic catheter - a catheter is inserted through the abdominal wall into the bladder. The catheter is then attached to a urine bag so that the bladder is drained constantly. A suprapubic catheter is inserted if the normal urethra (water pipe) cannot be used or it may be preferable to a urethral catheter.
Ureter - the ureter is a narrow muscular tube which drains urine from the kidneys into the bladder.
Urethra - the urethra is the tube which conveys urine from the bladder to the outside.
Ureterostomy - the ureters are brought out directly onto the abdominal wall. A urostomy bag is required to collect the urine.
Urostomy - an ileal or colonic conduit. A small portion of bowel is isolated and used to form a conduit (channel). The remaining bowel is sewn back together. The tubes from the kidneys are sewn into the isolated part of the bowel. A hole is cut in the abdomen so that the open end of the bowel passes through this and is called a stoma. Urine drains continuously from the stoma so a urostomy bag with a tap is attached to the skin by adhesive.